In early 2006, FESS completed a paper on "Oil and Gas and Conflict: Development Challenges and Policy Approaches," written at the request of USAID's Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation. Outlined in the paper are five of the major conditions or trends underlying oil and gas-related conflicts to help policymakers and stakeholders come to a better appreciation of the problems at hand when dealing with these resource-related threats to stability and security. Policy reforms elaborated within the paper include: political pressure and activism; reduced resource reliance; enhanced transparency of resource revenues; corporate responsibility initiatives; and the adoption of best practice standards. The paper provides examples of public-private sector programs that address natural resource and conflict issues directly or indirectly, an assessment tool designed to help determine the risk of conflict linked to the exploitation or transport of oil and gas within a country, and a resource list of U.S. government and donor programs and contact information.